考研英语阅读理解常考题型分析

时间:2020-10-05 18:25:15 考研英语 我要投稿

考研英语阅读理解常考题型分析

  考研阅读理解要求考生从整体上把握文章的逻辑结构和内容上的联系,理解句子之间、段落之间的关系。下面是小编分享的考研英语阅读理解常考题型分析,一起来看一下吧。

考研英语阅读理解常考题型分析

  词汇含义题

  词汇含义题几乎是历年考研英语阅读理解的必考题型。这一题型主要考查考生根据上下文理解生词含义的能力。通常来说,考生只需重点理解词汇所在句子的前后一两句话即可。

  要想通过上下文判断生词含义,考生就要学会判断生词所在句子与其上下文的关系:若该词所在句子与其上下文有逻辑或事实上的顺承关系(下文统称“顺接”),那么该词与其上下文所表达的含义或感情色彩应该相一致;若该词所在句子与其上下文有逻辑或事实上的相反关系(下文统称“逆接”),那么该词与其上下文所表达的含义或感情色彩应该相反。判断生词所在句子与其上下文是“顺接”或“逆接”关系有助于考生判断生词的感情色彩和大概意思。下面我们来分析一道真题。

  例1:The phrase “reneging on” (Line 3, para.1) is closest in meaning to . (选自2012年考研英语阅读理解真题Part A Text 2)

  A. condemning B. reaffirming

  C. dishonoring D. securing

  解析:考生可根据题干括号里的提示迅速在原文第一段第三行找到目标词组。因该词组所在句子为段尾句,考生可着重分析该词组所在句子与其上文的关系,原文如下:“A deal is a deal—except, apparently, when Entergy is involved. The company, a major energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week when it announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by the strict nuclear regulations.”原文第一句话中的except一词是重要解题点:except之前的句子表示“遵照规定执行”之意,而其之后的内容与前文发生“逆接”,由此可推测Entergy公司并未遵照规定执行。第二句是“顺接”第一句话的后半部分继续阐述,由此可推测整句话表达的应该是Entergy公司未按照规定执行的具体内容。根据第二句话中的provoked justified outrage可进一步确定Entergy公司的做法是违背规定的,四个选项中只有dishonoring (拒绝兑现)一词能表达出这层含义。Condemning表示“谴责”之意,不符合原文意思。Reaffirming和securing表达的都是积极肯定的含义,与原文表达的意思和感情色彩相反。因此正确答案为选项C。

  主旨标题题

  主旨标题题是考研英语阅读理解的常考题型之一。这一题型的题干中常会出现诸如main idea、general idea、meanly discuss、best title之类的词,主要考查考生对某一段或整篇文章主旨的理解。

  在解答这一题型时,考生不要拘泥于文章细节,而是要跳过细节抓主旨。文章的主旨往往出现在文章的首尾段中,段落的主旨则往往出现在该段的首尾句中。因此,解答主旨标题题的关键通常在于把握文章首尾段和段落首尾句的含义。下面我们来看一道真题。

  例2:Which of the following would be the best title for the text? (选自2008年考研英语阅读理解真题Part A Text 1)

  A. Strain of Stress: No Way Out?

  B. Responses to Stress: Gender Difference

  C. Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say

  D. Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress

  解析:该题表面上要求考生为文章选标题,实则考查考生对全文主旨的理解。该题的四个选项中都出现了stress一词,由此可确定文章一定与stress相关,接下来我们就来看文章的首尾段,从中挖掘全文主旨。

  首段:While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. “Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men,” according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York’s Veteran’s Administration Hospital.

  尾段:Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez’s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.   通过阅读首尾段考生可以发现,这两段中多次出现的关键词为stress和women,主要阐述的是女性受到的压力。通过这一点考生可排除选项A和C,因为这两项中都未出现与女性(或性别)相关的词汇。选项B表述的是不同性别的人面对压力的反应,但文章首尾段中并未说明男性面对压力的情况,由此可推测此项为错误答案。选项D的表述与文章首尾段的表述相一致,为正确答案。为确保万无一失,考生可快速浏览文章其他段的首尾句,确定其他段同样没有阐述不同性别的人面对压力的反应,由此彻底排除选项B。

  事实细节题

  事实细节题是考研英语阅读理解的重要题型,往往占阅读题目的一半左右,主要考查考生对原文某一细节的理解。考生可分三步来应对这一题型:①根据关键词回原文定位;②分析在原文定位到的答案信息;③将四个选项与原文信息进行对比分析,选出正确答案。下面我们就按这三步来解答一道真题。

  例3:According to Ericsson, good memory . (选自2007年考研英语阅读理解真题Part A Text 1)

  A. depends on meaningful processing of information

  B. results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises

  C. is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors

  D. requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration

  解析:第一步,通过题干中的'关键词Ericsson,考生可将答案信息定位至原文第四段:“This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one. In other words, whatever inborn differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize, those differences are swamped by how well each person ‘encodes’ the information. And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully, Ericsson determined, was a process known as deliberate practice. Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task. Rather, it involves setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.”

  第二步,通过分析这段话,考生可迅速提炼出Ericsson的两个观点:① The act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one. ② Deliberate practice is the best way to learn how to encode information.

  第三步,考生来对比分析四个选项和原文信息。通过分析不难发现,选项B的表述不符合Ericsson的第一个观点,选项C的表述与第四段第一句话的表述不一致,所以两者都是错误选项,可迅速排除。选项D中提到的immediate feedback和concentration在原文中都有同样的表述,是Ericsson在第二个观点中提到的deliberate practice所要求的两项内容,但除这两项外,Ericsson还提到了一项——specific goals,选项D漏掉了这一项,属于信息缺失,为错误选项。再来看略有难度的选项A。根据第四段第二句话,考生可推断出这样一个结论:Abilities to memorize depends on how well each person “encodes” the information. 选项A中出现的processing一词正是encode的同义替换,由此可确定选项A为正确答案。

  推理判断题

  推理判断题考查考生在了解事实细节的基础上进行推理的能力,要求考生推断出作者想说但并未明确说出的话。这类题的常规解题步骤通常包括三步:①根据题干中的关键词回原文定位;②分析在原文定位到的答案信息;③挖掘出答案信息的言外之意。这三步是攻克推理判断题的通常做法,但如果考生根据原文信息未能快速推断出其言外之意时,可尝试用排除法解题。下面我们就用排除法来解一道真题。

  例4:It can be inferred from the last paragraph that . (选自2011年考研英语阅读理解真题Part A Text 2)

  A. top performers used to cling to their posts

  B. loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated   C. top performers care more about reputations

  D. it’s safer to stick to the traditional rules

  解析:考生可根据题干中的提示词last paragraph将答案信息快速定位至原文最后一段:“Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. ‘The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted,’ says one headhunter. ‘The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.’”

  我们来分析四个选项。根据定位到的这段话,考生无法快速判断选项A是否为最后一段的言外之意,可先搁置。选项B中的getting out-dated与第一句话中的fading意思相似,但两者对应不同的事物:选项B中getting out-dated对应的是loyalty of top performers,而第一句话中的fading对应的是old disgrace (of top performers)。选项B偷换了概念,为错误选项。选项C的表述在此段没有提到,也非此段的言外之意,可排除。选项D的表述与此段最后一句话所表述的内容相反,为错误答案。根据排除法,只有选项A为正确答案。

  如果按照常规步骤解题,考生可着重分析最后一段话的言外之意。根据段落中headhunter所说的第一句话(The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are)可知,过去的观念是坚守一个职位比较安全。根据段落中的“The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one”这句话可推测,过去人们不那么容易接受“跳槽”的观念。再结合全文都在讲top performers现今开始“跳槽”的话题,考生不难推断出top performers过去常坚守一个职位,由此也可得出选项A为正确答案。

  例子作用题

  例子作用题也是考研英语阅读理解常考题型之一,主要考查考生对原文中提到的某个例子的作用或功能的理解。这类题的答案通常都是“源于例子而高于例子”。也就是说,解答这类题时考生不仅要理解例子本身的内容,还要分析例子的存在是为了说明何种事实。这个事实通常就是正确答案所在,它往往位于例子的上下文中,或者就是某个段落或全文的主旨句。下面我们来分析一道真题。

  例5:Toyota Motor’s experience is cited as an example of . (选自2011年考研英语阅读理解真题Part A Text 3)

  A. responding effectively to hijacked media

  B. persuading customers into  cotting products

  C. cooperating with supportive consumers

  D. taking advantage of hijacked media

  解析:根据题干中的关键词Toyota Motor,考生可将答案信息定位至原文最后一段最后一句话:“Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as  the social-news site Digg.”

  这句话的大概意思是说,丰田汽车在今年年初的“召回”危机中,通过在社交媒体上对客户进行积极回应而减少了一些损失。考生不难分析出这个事例是想表明一个事实:公司对客户进行回应是有效果的。为了进一步确定上述事实是否为正确答案,考生可接着分析这一事例的前一句话:“In such a case, the company’s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep.”这句话是说如果公司不做及时、用心的回应,其损失就会比较惨重。其言外之意也是说公司要对客户进行积极的回应。四个选项中,只有选项A提到了responding effectively (有效地回应),为正确答案。

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