时间:2021-12-31 08:35:14 考研英语 我要投稿






  By almost every measure, Paul Pfingst is an unsentimental prosecutor. Last week the San Diego County district attorney said he fully intends to try suspect Charles Andrew Williams, 15, as an adult for the Santana High School shootings. Even before the tragedy, Pfingst had stood behind the controversial California law that mandates treating murder suspects as young as 14 as adults.

  So nobody would have wagered that Pfingst would also be the first D.A. in the U.S. to launch his very own Innocence Project. Yet last June, Pfingst told his attorneys to go back over old murder and rape convictions and see if any unravel with newly developed DNA-testing tools. In other words, he wanted to revisit past victories--this time playing for the other team. "I think people misunderstand being conservative for being biased," says Pfingst. "I consider myself a pragmatic guy, and I have no interest in putting innocent people in jail."

  Around the U.S., flabbergasted defense attorneys and their jailed clients cheered his move. Among prosecutors, however, there was an awkward pause. After all, each DNA test costs as much as $5,000. Then there's the unspoken risk: if dozens of innocents turn up, the D.A. will have indicted his shop.

  But nine months later, no budgets have been busted or prosecutors ousted. Only the rare case merits review. Pfingst's team considers convictions before 1993, when the city started routine DNA testing. They discard cases if the defendant has been released. Of the 560 remaining files, they have re-examined 200, looking for cases with biological evidence and defendants who still claim innocence.

  They have identified three so far. The most compelling involves a man serving 12 years for molesting a girl who was playing in his apartment. But others were there at the time. Police found a small drop of saliva on the victim's shirt--too small a sample to test in 1991. Today that spot could free a man. Test results are due any day. Inspired by San Diego, 10 other counties in the U.S. are starting DNA audits.

  By Amanda Ripley ez ncisco sijevic rtwell; Lisa McLaughlin; Joseph Pierro; Josh Tyrangiel and Sora Song

  注(1)本文选自Time; 03/19/20xx, Vol. 157 Issue 11, p62, 1p, 2c, 3bw

  注(2)本文习题命题模仿对象20xx年真题text 1.

  1.How did Pfingst carry out his own Innocence Project?

  [A]By getting rid of his bias against the suspects.

  [B]By revisiting the past victories.

  [C]By using the newly developed DNA-testing tools.

  [D]By his cooperation with his attorneys.

  2.Which of the following can be an advantage of Innocence Project?

  [A]To help correct the wrong judgments.

  [B]To oust the unqualified prosecutors.

  [C]To make the prosecutors in an awkward situation.

  [D]To cheer up the defense attorneys and their jailed clients.

  3.The expression “flabbergasted”(Line 1, Paragraph 3) most probably means _______.





  4.Why was Pfingst an unsentimental prosecutor?

  [A]He intended to try a fifteen-year old suspect.

  [B]He had no interest in putting the innocent in jail.

  [C]He supported the controversial California law.

  [D]He wanted to try suspect as young as fourteen.

  5.Which of the following is not true according to the text?

  [A]Pfingst’s move didn’t have a great coverage.

  [B] Pfingst’s move had both the positive and negative effect.

  [C] Pfingst’s move didn’t work well.

  [D]Pfingst’s move greatly encouraged the jailed prisoners.




  prosecutor [5prRsIkju:tE(r)]n.检察官 ,检察员,起诉人,原告

  controversial [kRntrE5v:F(E)l]adj.争论的, 争议的

  mandate [5mAndeIt]v.批准制订一个训令,如通过法律;发布命令或要求:

  wager [5weIdVE(r)]v.下赌注, 保证

  conviction [kEn5vIkF(E)n]n.定罪, 宣告有罪

  unravel[Qn5rAv(E)l]v. 阐明, 解决

  flabbergast[5flAbE^B:st; (?@) -^Ast]v.<口>使大吃一惊, 哑然失色, 使目瞪口呆

  indict[In5daIt]v.起诉, 控告, 指控, 告发


  oust[aJst]v.剥夺, 取代, 驱逐


  molest[mE5lest]v.., 困扰, 调戏

  saliva[sE5laIvE]n.口水, 唾液


  1.Even before the tragedy, Pfingst had stood behind the controversial California law that mandates treating murder suspects as young as 14 as adults.

  主体句式:…Pfingst had stood behind …

  结构分析:Even before the tragedy是本句的时间状语;主句是Pfingst had stood behind…;that 引导的`宾语从句修饰law;在从句中,as…as是一词组,意思是“和…一样”;出现的第三个as是介词,意思是“作为”。



  1.答案为C,属事实细节题。文中对应信息“Pfingst told his attorneys to go back over old murder and rape convictions and see if any unravel with newly developed DNA-testing tools.”是对第二段第一句的补充说明。


  3.答案为D, 属猜词题。从第二段第一句话我们得知芬斯特可能是美国第一个实施非常独特的“清白计划”的人,因此他的做法很可能是令人感到吃惊的,从而可猜出该词的含义。


  5.答案为C,属推理判断题。正因为 “Pfingst’s move works well”,美国才又有“ten other counties are starting DNA audits”,而且,“no budgets have been busted or prosecutors ousted”.



  Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Gallileo's17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church of poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the humanities has,if anything,deepened in this century.

  Until recently,the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics but no longer. As funding for science has declined,scientists have attacked “antiscience” in several books,notably Higher Superstition,by Paul R.Gross,a biologist at the University of Virginia,and Norman Levitt,a mathematician at Rutgers University; and The Demon-Haunted World,by Car Sagan of Cornell University.

  Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as “The Flight from Science and Reason,”held in New York City in1995,and “Science in the Age of(Mis)information,”which assembled last June near Buffalo.

  Antiscience clearly means different things to different people. Gross and Levitt find fault primarily with sociologists,philosophers and other academics who have questioned science's objectivity. Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts,creationism and other phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview.

  A survey of news stories in1996reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well,from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber,whose manifesto,published in1995,scorns science and longs for return to a pretechnological utopia. But surely that does not mean environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are antiscience,as an essay in US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest.

  The environmentalists,inevitably,respond to such critics. The true enemies of science,argues Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University,a pioneer of environmental studies,are those who question the evidence supporting global warming,the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth. Indeed,some observers fear that the antiscience epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless. “The term 'antiscience' can lump together too many,quite different things,”notes Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his1993work Science and Anti-Science. “They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened.”

  62.The author's attitude toward the issue of “science vs. antiscience” is .

  A. impartial B. subjective C. biased D. puzzling