1. …is a very popular topic which is much talked about not only by …but also by …
Weahter a large family is a good thing or not is a very popular topic which is often talked about not only by city residents but by farners as well.
2.There is no denying the fact that…
There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extemerely serious problem：the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.
3.As is known to all，…
As is known to all，fake and inferior commodities harm the interests of consumers.(=do a lot of harm to the interests of comsumers)
4.More and more people are realing the importance of …
Tody an increaasing number of people have realized that law education is of great importance .In order to keep law and order，very one of us is supposed to get(=receive)a law education.
From what I have mentoned above，we can see clearly that violence on TV has great influence on young adults‘behaviour.(或 teenagers’behavior 或 youngsters‘behavior)
1.There are some good reasons for…(分析原因)
There are two reasons for the improvement in people‘s living conditions.Inthefirst place，we have been carrying out the reform and opening-up policy.Secondly，there has been a rapid expansion of our national economy .Further-more，the birth rate has been put under control.
2.My suggestions to deal with the problem are as follows.In the first place，… Secondly，…Finally… solve
My suggestions to deal with the problem are as follows .To begin with，it is urgent to create nature reserves.Secondly，certain rare wild animals that are goingtobeextinct should be collected，fed and reproduced artificially.Finally ，those who hunter them must be punished severely.
3.Different people have different opinions on this question.Some people believe that …
problem. matter. argue that… Still others assert that…(论述不同看法)
People differ in their attitudes towards failure.Faced with it ，some of them can stand up to it .draw useful lessons from it and try hard to fulfii what they are determined to do.Others，however，lose heart and give in.
4.It is important (nessary， urgent， difficult， easy， expensive， desirable， abvisable，convenient， comfortable)for sb. to do sth. (发表意见)
It is desirable to build more hospitals，shopping centres，recreation centres，cinemas and other public facilities to meet the growing needs of people.
5.As a popular saying goes “Everything has two sides.” (分析利弊)
As a popular saying goes， “Everything has two sides.” Now people (the public)are benefiting more and more from scientific and technological inventions. On the other hand，the progress of science and technology is bringing us a lot of trouble.Peoplein many countries are srffering from public hazards.
6.For example， … (举例阐述) For instance， … Let‘s take …for examlpe.
Les ‘ s take cars for example.They not only pollute the air in cities，but make them crowed.Furthermore，they carse a lot of traffic accidents. (…， they are responsible for a lot of traffic accidents.) The noise made by cars disturbs the residents living on both sides of streets all day and night.
7.It is generally believed that … accepted (引证观点) thought held
It is generally believed (=thought) that the chief reason for the increase in population in developed coutries is not so much the rise in birth rates as the decline in death rates as a result of the improvement in medical care.
8. …causes (produces， brings about， leads to， results in …)(因果关系)毫无疑问，需求的增长导致了价格的上涨。
There is no doubt that the increase in demand causes(results in/leads to) the rise in prices.
1. As is shown by the graph，… (概述图表)
in the table.
正如曲线所示，最近 54 年来该国人口飞速增长。
As is shown by the graph，there has been a rapid increase in the population of the country in the past five years.
2. It can be seen from the table that … (得出结论) shown graph concluded figures estimated statistics
A. 从表中所给的统计数字可以看出，从 1985 年到 1990 年中国的人均收入迅速提高。
From the statistics given in the table it can be seen that the average personal income of the Chinese people increased (grew 、rose) rapidly from 1985 to 1990.
B. 从曲线图可以得出结论，最近 5 年来中国人口的出生率已经大大下降。
It can be concluded from the graph that there has been a great decline in birth rates in China in the past five years.
3. … amount to … (数量总计) add up to come to
sum up to
全部费用合计 200 美元。All the expenses (costs) amount to (= add up to) $ 200.
4. … increase from … to … ( 数量增减 ) decrease rise fall drop
A. 这个工厂生产的彩电已由 1986 年的 5000 台增加到 1990 年的21000 台。
The number of colour TV sets produced by the factory increased (rose ， grew ， climbed) from 5000 in 1986 to 21000 in 1990.
B.参加者的人数增加到 30 万。The number of paticipants grew up to 300000 persons = increased ， reaching 300000 persons)
C. 这个学校的教职工人数已减少到 700 人。The number of teaching staff members in this school has decreased to 700 persons.
5.(be)three times as + 形容词 + as 总产量 total output 钢的年产量 the annual output of 上升 17% rise by 17per cent steel 日产量 the daily output 导致产量下降 result in a diminished output
现在我们地区的粮食产量相当于 1970 年的 3倍。
The grain production (= output)in our area now is three times as great as that of 1970.
6.Compared with … ， …
与去年相比，今年 13 项主要产品的产量都有大幅度增长。The factory has an output of 9 million cigarettes daily.
Compared with that of last year，the output of 13 main products (= items) this year has increased to a great extent.
7.There is (was) a rapid rise in … be on the rise
has been sharp increase on the increase
sudden decrease on the decline
The cotton output in this area has increased rapidly in the past few years.
1. In my opinion， … 2. Personally， I … 3. In short (= In brief)， …
4. In conclusion， … 5.As far as I‘m concerned， … 6. To conclude ， it seems clearthat…
As far as I‘mconcerned，I’ m in favour of the former view.Therefore，my conclusion is that we are certain to succeed as long as we stick to what is right and correct what is wrong.