高中英语阅读题型

时间:2017-10-18 19:09:58 英语阅读 我要投稿

高中英语阅读题型

  阅读理解题能集中、全面地检测考生从阅读中获取与加工信息的能力,客观地反映考生对阅读材料理解的准确性与透彻性。下面小编跟大家分析一下高中英语阅读的题型,一起来了解一下吧!

高中英语阅读题型

  【阅读理解的题型分析】

  (一)细节题(Specific Questions)

  细节题是根据短文提供的信息和事实进行提问,选择的依据必须是短文本身提供的信息。为了证明自己的观点,作者往往会铺陈事实、罗列细节以使观点更有说服力。事实与细节是文章不可或缺的组成部分。这类题型,数量上在近年高考中遥遥领先,大量事实题或细节题的出现便是一个有力的证明。细节题的发问具体,涉及内容五花八门,通常采用以疑问词开头的特殊疑问句或不完全句的形式,即便不是以what,which,how many (much,long,etc.)等疑问词引导的问句,也是以变相的问句对这类事实或细节进行提问。如:

  How did Johnny deal with those quotes?

  What did the store manager see a month later?

  What’s the right order of the following events?

  When did the work on the statue begin?

  When the chapel was going to be finished, the builders found that_____.

  例:44. Which would be the best title for the text?

  A. The invention of the Jazz Music. B. The Father of the Jazz Style.

  C. The Making of a Musician. D. The Spread of Popular Music.

  真题解析:

  通览全文,发现本文中所有句子都围绕Louis Armstrong展开,那么就可直奔中心词为 somebody的选项B,直接排除其余三项。

  解题方法:

  1、整体感知,确定文体,根据文体特点寻找主题句。

  2、如果文中没有现成的主题句,则需依靠衔接过度词、句际关系等把握文章逻辑结构,分辨主题与细节,总结段落大意。

  3、对比选项,谨防常见病症:以偏概全、所概括的内容与文章不相关、概括太笼统等。

  (二)推理题(Inference Questions)

  推理题或称推断题是阅读理解中难度最高的题类,其答案往往在短文的字面上不会出现。而推理又是阅读理解不可或缺的手段。若仅靠捕捉字面信息,把握主题,寻觅显而易见的事实细节是远不足以全面而深刻理解作者的思想和意图。因此,要善于通过逻辑推理以挖掘深层内涵。

  推理不是一个独立的手段,它需要借助表面文字信息或以具体事实、实际语境,即所谓的上下文为依据进行判断。因此,正确理解字面意义,结合上下文是推断的先决条件。推理题的提问方式很多,如:

  What is probably the main reason that…?

  What does the passage imply about…?

  Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about…?

  It can be inferred from the passage that…

  The passage is probably taken from a book about…

  例:57. We know from the text that “BJ” _____.

  A. works in the Global Hair Station B. Often greets the passers-by

  C. Likes to sleep in the sun D. Is a two-year-old cat

  真题解析:

  寻读找到“BJ”后,参看上下文:Little black BJ has spent nearly all his two years “working”at Punch Gallery in Balmain. Owner Lain Powell said he had had cats at the gallery for 15 years. “BJ often lies in the shop window and people walking past tap on the glass,”he said.

  根据句中加下划线部分,就可推断出答案是D。另外,下面的线索也有助于印证我们的推断:

  Working带引号,则肯定另有蹊跷,不是一般意义上的work,A很值得怀疑。根据前一段paragraph 3 最后一句They know when to go and have a sleep in the sun.断定C项错误。它们知道该什么时候去阳光下睡觉,而不是喜欢阳光下睡觉。

  下划曲线句表明,It is not that the cat often greets the passers-by, but the people walk past tapping on the glass. 所以B错误。

  解题方法:

  1、关注连词,分析文章逻辑结构。

  2、聚焦代词,明辨指代关系。

  3、抓住关键词语,利用平行结构、上下文(包括定义、释义、举例、对比、标点)进行判断与推理。

  4、了解一些构词法,从词根的特殊含义入手。

  (三)主旨题(Main Idea Questions)

  主旨题或要旨题用来检测考生对文章的主题或中心思想的判断能力,可以问短文的标题、主要内容、主题、作者的态度、目的、短文的基调等。主旨题是阅读理解中很常见的'题类,主要是针对说明文和议论文进行提问。这类体裁的文章往往在章节的开首段直截了当地提出论点,具有开宗明义的特点。文中的其他句子都是以主题句为中心展开讨论,或说理或以事实加以论证。考生若能准确地把握文章的要旨,这类题便如探囊取物一般易解了。要旨题往往采取以下几种句式:

  What is the main topic of the passage?

  What is discussed in this passage?

  This passage is primarily concerned with _____.

  The main idea of this passage is _____.

  This passage mainly deals with _____.

  例:56. The purpose of the text is to _____.

  A. describe computer research result

  B. draw attention to teens’ computer habits

  C. suggest ways to deal with problem teens

  D. discuss problems teens have at school

  真题解析:

  比较选项,发现A项中心词describe与D项中心词discuss只是写作方法,而不是目的。所以首先排除这两项。寻读未发现建议以解决问题,所以再排除C,这样答案就只能是B了。

  解题方法:

  做这类题要有理有据,以文中所给事实细节为依据,全面把握作者思路与文章脉络,对隐含的观点进行合理推测与判断,深入领会作者“言外之意”,切忌主观臆断,断章取义,曲解作者本意。

  (四)指代题(Reference Questions)

  指代题用来测试考生在短文中理解词义和词组意义的能力。这类题型实际上可以再细分为两类:一是猜测生词词义,问题核心词常有most probably means,closest in meaning to,can be replaced by等;二是判断代词which或it的指代对象,或者根据文章进行推断,问题核心词常有infer,according to the text,known from the text等。由于解题方法类似,所以这里放在一起分析。经常这样提问:

  In line 3, what does “it” refer to?

  The word “spotted” (line 6) means…

  The underlined part “a lump in the throat”(in Paragraph 4) probably means “__”.

  The underlined words “stick with it” in the third paragraph can best be replaced by “_____”.

  To which of the following is the phrase “in its own right” in line 8 closest in meaning?

  例:45. The word “indicator” in paragraph 1 probably means _____.

  A. maps B. services C. signs D. stations

  真题解析:先对原文进行寻读并找到要猜词义的单词indicator,再参看上下文进行比较推测。此句前面共有三句话:第二句以However开头,表明中心在后句,前句则可跳过不读;第二句是含有because引导状语从句的复合句,由于问题不涉及原因,也可跳过。那么中心应在第三句“You can also find many weather signs among wild life.”通过对比,很容易得出结论:“weather indicator” means “weather sign”。

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