英语阅读理解文章

时间:2017-10-18 17:13:04 英语阅读 我要投稿

英语阅读理解文章

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英语阅读理解文章

  【读书之乐】

  Reading is a pleasure of the mind, which means that it is a little like a sport: your eagerness and knowledge and quickness make you a good reader. Reading is fun, not because the writer is telling you something, but because it makes your mind work.

  Your own imagination works along with the author's or even goes beyond his. Your experience, compared with his, brings you to the same or different conclusions, and your ideas develop as you understand his.

  Every book stands by itself, like a one-family house, but books in a library are like houses in a city.

  Although they are separate, together they all add up to something; they are connected with each other and with other cities.

  The same ideas, or related ones, turn up in different places; the human problems that repeat themselves in life repeat themselves in literature, but with different solutions according to different writings at different times.

  Reading can only be fun if you expect it to be. If you concentrate on books somebody tells you "ought" to read, you probably won't have fun.

  But if you put down a book you don't like and try another till you find one that means something to you, and then relax with it, you will almost certainly have a good time--and if you become as a result of reading, better, wiser, kinder, or more gentle, you won't have suffered during the process.

  读书是愉悦心智之事。在这一点上它与运动颇为相似:一个优秀的读者必须要有热情、有知识、有速度。读书之乐并非在于作者要告诉你什么,而在于它促使你思考。你跟随作者一起想像,有时你的想象甚至会超越作者的。

  把自己的体验与作者的相互比较,你会得出相同或者不同的结论。在理解作者想法的同时,也形成了自己的观点。

  每一本书都自成体系,就像一家一户的住宅,而图书馆里的藏书好比城市里千家万户的居所。尽管它们都相互独立,但只有相互结合才有意义。

  家家户户彼此相连,城市与城市彼此相依。相同或相似的思想在不同地方涌现。人类生活中反复的问题也在文学中不断重现,但因时代与作品的差异,答案也各不相同。

  如果你希望的话,读书也能充满乐趣。倘若你只读那些别人告诉你该读之书,那么你不太可能有乐趣可言。

  但如果你放下你不喜欢的书,试着阅读另外一本,直到你找到自己中意的,然后轻轻松松的读下去,差不多一定会乐在其中。而且,当你通过阅读变得更加优秀,更加善良,更加文雅时,阅读便不再是一种折磨。

  【Cells and Temperature】

  Cells cannot remain alive outside certain limits of temperature and much narrower limits mark the boundaries of effective functioning.

  Enzyme systems of mammals and birds are most efficient only within a narrow range around 37C;a departure of a few degrees from this value seriously impairs their functioning.

  Even though cells can survive wider fluctuations the integrated actions of bodily systems are impaired. Other animals have a wider tolerance for changes of bodily temperature.

  For centuries it has been recognized that mammals and birds differ from other animals in the way they regulate body temperature.

  Ways of characterizing the difference have become more accurate and meaningful over time, but popular terminology still reflects the old division into “warm-blooded” and “cold-blooded” species; warm-blooded included mammals and birds whereas all other creatures were considered cold-blooded.

  As more species were studied, it became evident that this classification was inadequate.

  A fence lizard or a desert iguana—each cold-blooded----usually has a body temperature only a degree or two below that of humans and so is not cold.

  Therefore the next distinction was made between animals that maintain a constant body temperature, called homeotherms, and those whose body temperature varies with their environments, called poikilotherms.

  But this classification also proved inadequate, because among mammals there are many that vary their body temperatures during hibernation.

  Furthermore, many invertebrates that live in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the chill of the deep water, and their body temperatures remain constant.

  细胞只能在一定的温度范围内存活,而进一步保证它们有效工作的温度范围就更小了。哺乳动物和鸟类的酶系统只能在37℃左右的很小范围内才能有效工作。

  与此相差仅几度的温度都会大大削弱它们的工作效率。尽管温度变化更大时细胞仍能存活,但机体系统的整体运行能力却被削弱了。其它动物对体温的`变化有更强的适应性。

  几个世纪以来,人们就认识到哺乳动物和鸟类调节体温的方式与其它动物不同。随着时间的推移,人们对这种差异的描述越来越精确和有意义,但是"暖血动物"和"冷血动物"这一古老的分类方式至今仍在大众词汇中有所反映。暖血动物包括哺乳动物和鸟类,其它动物统统被视为冷血动物。

  但是对更多物种进行的研究表明这种分类显然是不适当的。美洲一种小型蜥蜴和沙漠鬣蜥同属冷血动物,但实际上它们的体温通常只比人类的体温低1~2度,因此并不是真正的冷血。

  因此又出现了恒温动物(即保持恒定体温的动物)和变温动物(即体温随外界环境的变化而改变的动物)这一区分方式。但这种分类也不恰当。

  因为有不少哺乳动物在冬眠期间会改变体温,而许多生活在深海的无脊椎动物在寒冷的深海水域中体温并不变化,而是恒定的。

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