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初中英语语法知识点总结_宾语从句

时间:2017-03-20 18:27:27编辑:庆华 手机版

  宾语从句是初中英语知识中的重点和难点。以下是YJBYS小编为大家整理的初中英语语法知识点总结_宾语从句,欢迎大家参考借鉴!

  一、概述

  宾语从句是主从复合句的一种。主从复合句是由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的。

  主句是复合句的主体,从句仅仅是主句的一个成分,它从属于主句,不能独立。从句在全句中充当什么成分,就叫什么从句。宾语从句当中的从句在全句中作宾语。

  简单句She knew the teacher(宾语)复合句 She knew that the teacher had seen the film.(宾从)

  二、宾语从句

  1.语序

  无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句,宾语从句都必须使用陈述语序,即“主句+连词+宾语从句(主语+谓语+……)”句式。根据连接词在从句中所担任的不同成分,可分为以下四种:

  1)连接词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语。常见的连接词有: who,what,which等。如:

  Could you tell me who knows the answer,please?你能告诉我谁知道答案吗?

  The small children don't know what is in their stockings.这些小孩子不知道袜子里有什么东西.

  I don't know which belongs to my father.

  2)连接词+名词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语的定语。常见的连接词有:whose,what,which,how many,how much等。如:

  He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.他问我们班上谁的书法最好。

  The teacher asked us how many people there were in the room.老师问我们房间里有多少人。

  3)连接词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语、状语或表语。常见的连接词有:who(m),what,which, how many, how much, when, why, how, where, if /whether(在句中不充当任何成分)。如:

  He hasn't decided if he'll go on a trip to Wuxi.他还没决定是否去无锡旅行。

  Could you tell me what I should do with the money ?你能告诉我我如何处理这笔钱吗?

  4)连接词+名词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语或表语的定语。常见的连接词有:what,which,how many,how much,how等。如:

  Do you know which class he is in ?你知道他在哪个班吗?

  She asked me if I knew whose pen it was.她问我是否知道这是谁的钢笔。

  2.连接词

  1)当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。如:

  He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作。

  2)当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

  I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years.

  但在下列情况下只能用whether:

  ① 在具有选择意义,又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如:

  Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whethe or not he will come)

  I don't know whether/if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)

  I wonder whether we stay or whether we go.

  ② 在介词之后用whether。如:

  I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。

  We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.

  I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.我担心是否伤了她的感情。

  ③ 在不定式前用whether。如:

  He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。

  I don't know whether to go.我不知去否。

  He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车去还是坐火车去。

  ④ whether置于句首时,不能换用if。如:

  Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。

  ⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用whether。如:

  Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

  The question is whether we can catch the bus.问题是我们能否赶上公共汽车。

  ⑥ 若用if会引起歧义时,则用whether。如:

  Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为:a. Please let me know whether you like the book.请告诉我你是否喜欢这本书。B. If you like the book, please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我。

  3)如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的特殊疑问词引导。如:

  Could you tell me why you were late for the meeting this morning?

  3.时态

  含宾语从句的复合句,主、从句谓语动词的时态呼应应包括以下三点内容:

  1)如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词可根据需要,选用相应的任何时态。如:

  I don't know when he will come back.我不知道他将何时回来。

  He tells me that his sister came back yesterday.他告诉我他姐姐昨天回来了。

  2)如果主句的谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句的谓语动词只可根据需要,选用过去时态即一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时或过去完成时的某一种形式。如:

  ①The children didn't know who he was.孩子们不知道他是谁。

  ②He asked his father how it happened.他问他父亲这件事是如何发生的。

  3)如果宾语从句所表示的是客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象或习惯性动作等,不管主句用什么时态,从句时态都用一般现在时。如:

  The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.老师说地球绕着太阳转。

  4.注意:

  if和when既可以引导宾语从句,也可以引导状语从句,应注意它们在两种从句中的意思和用法的不同。if和when引导宾语从句时,分别意为“是否”和“何时”,其时态应和主句时态相呼应;它们引导状语从句时,意思分别为“如果,假如”和“当……时候”,当主句时态是一般将来时时,其时态用一般现在时。它们常常放在含有状语从句和宾语从句的题干中进行综合考查。如:

  —Do you know when he will come back tomorrow ?你知道他明天什么时候回来吗?

  —Sorry, I don't know. When he comes back, I'll tell you. 对不起,不知道。当他回来了,我将告诉你。

  —I don't know if he will come.我不知道他是否会来。

  —He will come if it doesn't rain.如果不下雨,他会来的。

  ★宾语从句的复合句转化为简单句(六种方法),使其与原句意思相同(或相近)的试题。

  方法一:当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise(和主观决定有关)等,且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。例如:

  Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon. →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.

  We decided that we would help him. →We decided to help him.

  方法二:当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell(和记忆认知有关)等动词,且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

  She has forgotten how she can open the window. →She has forgotten how to open the window.

  注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

  Could you tell me how I can get to the station? →Could you tell me how to get to the station?

  方法三:当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。例如:The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

  方法四:某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如:

  He insisted that he should go with us. →He insisted on going with us.

  The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born. →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.

  方法五:某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”结构。例如:Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground. → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.

  方法六:动词seem后的宾语从句,也可以用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型需要进行适当的变化。例如:It seemed that the boys were going to win. →The boys seemed to win.

  除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化。例如:

  I found that it was difficult to learn English well. →I found it difficult to learn English well.

  Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow. →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.

  They found that the box was very heavy. →They found the box very heavy


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